Laser engraving machine is an industrial equipment manufactured using laser technology. It combines CNC technology: laser is the processing medium and with a computer. The surface of the object undergoes rapid chemical changes under the laser, leaving a mark on the object. Laser engraving can achieve processing purposes without touching the object. Therefore, the surface of the engraved object is smooth, which is more advantageous than the traditional drill engraving. Laser engraving machine can engrave or mark objects on a large scale and provide work efficiency.
Table of Contents
How does laser engraving work?
After the laser is generated by the optical maser, it is transmitted by the reflector and irradiated on the processed object through the focusing mirror, so that the processed object(surface) is subjected to strong thermal energy and the temperature increases sharply. The point will be quickly melted or vaporized due to high temperature, and cooperate with the running track of the laser head to achieve the purpose of processing.
Laser engraving, mainly performed on the surface of an object, is a trace engraved by the chemical or physical change of the surface material caused by the light energy of the laser beam, or burns off part of the material by light energy, showing the desired etching pattern, text.
Important parts of laser engraving machine
A laser engraving machine consists of these parts: motor, guide rail, control, laser tube, lens, Machine casing and so on.
1. Spindle motor
Spindle motor is an important component of laser engraving machine, the engraving accuracy is determined by the motor. Small laser engraving machine can engraving at least 4mm characters, while big size laser engraving machine can engraving small characters at 1.5mm.
Machining spindles are generally divided into two categories:
1. Precision machining spindle
The characteristics of the precision machining spindle are low noise and high speed, which are suitable for processing extremely fine workpieces, such as jewelry, nameplates, and badge gifts. This type of motor is usually a high-speed variable frequency motor with low power. The disadvantage is that the ability to cut thick materials is poor, which is not suitable for cutting thick materials.
2. High power cutting spindle
The high-power cutting spindle is mainly used for cutting. It is characterized by high power and strong cutting ability. It is especially suitable for cutting acrylic. Of course, it can also be used to make gift brands.
High-power spindles are generally divided into brushless variable frequency motors and brushed motors according to the characteristics of the motor. The main differences are:
- The speed of the brushless inverter motor is high, and the variable speed range is 700-60000 rpm, while the maximum speed of the brushed motor is generally not more than 24000 rpm.
- Brushless variable frequency motors have high accuracy, low wear, low noise than brushed AC motors;
- The performance of the brushless inverter motor is good. Due to the limited current design on the inverter, short-term failures will not damage the motor, and brushed motors may be damaged when overloaded and cannot be repaired;
- Brushless motor adopts frequency conversion control technology to regulate speed, long life.
2. Guide rail
Big size laser engraving machines must use widened high-quality square guide rails, whose load capacity and accuracy are more than 30 times that of round guide rails, ensuring the normal operation of the laser engraving machine.
3. Control method
The laser engraving machine is controlled by a computer. With the development of technology, the laser engraving machine has a USB interface, which makes the laser engraving machine easier to use.
4. Laser tube
Laser tubes are the most important part of laser engraving machines. The laser tube is made of glass, and its main function is to engrave the material with laser.
5. Laser lens
The laser lens determines the power of the laser engraving machine. If you are planning to buy a high-power laser engraving machine, then you should choose a good laser lens.
6. Machine casing
Laser engraving machine Uses frame structure, welded with high quality steel, and made of high quality cold rolled steel to make the casing.
What is a laser engraving machine used for?
The laser was applied in production soon after it came out in 1960. With the continuous exploration and research of lasers and the rapid development of optoelectronic technology, various laser devices continue to develop and the application fields continue to expand, bringing more and more economic and social benefits to people. Nowadays, the application range of laser engraving technology is more and more extensive, and people have higher and higher requirements for engraving accuracy.
Industrial application of laser engraving machine:
- Advertising industry In addition to traditional newspaper and magazine publishing methods, advertising methods are becoming more and more diverse. Laser engraving machines are widely used in the advertising industry, such as sign engraving and plexiglass cutting.
- Gift industry Text and pictures on gift packages are often printed using laser cutting machines, such as engraving text and patterns on wine jars, wooden boards, MDF(medium-density fibreboard), leather, and other packaging.
- Garment processing industry With the rapid development of the fashion and clothing industry, the laser engraving machine has gradually become one of the most commonly used processes in the garment processing industry. Many materials can be processed, such as polyester fiber, glass fiber, wool, cotton, silk, foam, fabric, plush.
- Printing industry Laser engraving machines can not only engrave on paper, but also rubber sheets, plastic boards, and other products.
- Laser engraving machines are also often used in the seal industry. Traditional seal carvings are mostly hand-carved, with high price and long production time. The seal pattern engraved by the laser engraving machine is exquisite and delicate, no less than manual engraving, and it improves the disadvantage of low seal production efficiency. There are a wide range of carving materials, stone, jade, etc. can all be used for creation.
In addition to the five industries mentioned above, the laser engraving machine has gradually become one of the most commonly used processes in model making, decoration, and other industries.
What can you engrave with a laser engraver?
Laser engraving can process almost any material, but is limited by the power of the laser head. CO2 laser engraving machine mainly engraves non-metallic materials, and the fiber laser engraving machine can mark metal.
You can use laser engraving on the following materials: glass, plastic, double-color board, bamboo, cloth, leather, rubber board, stone, PVC board, wood products, metal plate (excluding copper), crystal, paper, alumina, resin , jewelry, etc.
What can you make with a laser engraver?
Laser engraver is a state-of-the-art machine that can process various materials. You can creat awesome DIY projects with a laser engraving machine.
Now, I will briefly explain the functions and Introduce what you can actually make!
The material can be flat, such as wood, acrylic, paper, cloth, leather, stone etc. A heat-sensitive material may be possible, but it will affect the finish, such as unevenness of the cut surface, Please contact us if you really want to do it.
Engraving (Cut) For Wood
As you may have noticed, this is a signboard at the entrance of shop.
Note: When you made it, it was slightly burnt due to the nature of the wood, so you can deal it with a knife.
Someone also makes wedding boards by a laser engraving machine! It is good for gifts such as anniversary plates.
This is a wooden button. The recommended point is that if one piece of data is created, it can be duplicated and mass-produced. So whether it’s carving or cutting, you can use it.
This is the engraving effect that gradually increases the output from “A” to “S”.
If you increase the output, you can sculpt deeply, but you can see that the charring is conspicuous.
(As mentioned above, it can be solved by shaving with a knife.)
Different material version
Engraving (Cut) For Leather
Tried with various settings, cutting, engraving and marking.
Since it is Illustrator data, it is also possible to express fine paths!
Engraving (Cut) For Acrylic Board
If you mark fine data, it can be output neatly! The cut surface is also smooth.
Engraving (Cut) For Rubber Stamp
The rubber material is shaved by inverting the data.
Engraving (Cut) For Paper
For engravings that cannot be done manually, the laser engraving machine can handle them easily. Even with thick papers, you can also cut by increasing the laser power.
This is animal pattern that is cut with an laser engraver and stamped with foil.
Engraving (Cut) For Fabric
It is a very fashionable pattern – A piece of cotton broad turns like this.
By the way, in this case, the image was traced in Photoshop, converted to Illustrator and output. 3D expression is possible with textiles depending on how the data is created and the materials.
If you are concerned about strength with textile cut, i recommend materials that contain polyester.
Engraving (Cut) For Artificial Marble
The unevenness is beautiful and the finish is elegant. It is a marble with a high-class image, maybe you like it. It is also recommended to mark image data such as photographs on black and gray marble.
If you have a small idea of your own, you can also share it in the comment section, and we can test the effect.
Laser engraver buying guide in 2021
Buying a laser engraving machine is a large investment, so you can only buy it based on a detailed understanding of the laser engraving machine. According to our many years of experience, we have listed 5 aspects that should be paid attention to when buying a laser engraving machine. Here is detailed guid.
1, The thickness of the engraved object
The power of the laser engraving machine is different so that the thickness of the engravable items is different. The higher the wattage, the deeper you can carve. Even with low power, you can cut paper, carve plastic surfaces slightly, or burn wood to engrave. If you want to carve deeper, it is better to select one with high output, but even with low output, you can get the depth by carving the same pattern many times. However, because of the heat, the material may be distorted due to burning or heat.
The power of the common laser engraving machine is between 50-180w, and the thickness of engraving is about 3-20mm. With an output of 1000w, wood, bamboo, plastic, leather, rubber, cork, etc. can be engraved. At 1500w, you can engrave even deeper, and thin materials can be cut.
2. Engraving area
The size of the laser engraving machine determines its working area.
- Small laser engraving machine
The most common small engraving areas are: 600mm × 400mm and 600mm × 900mm. Engraving double-color plate is the most basic application of small laser engraving machine.
- Big size laser engraving machine
Big size laser engraving machines can engrave or mark large objects, such as plexiglass and PVC boards, so these models are suitable for customers who need to engrave big size material.
We recommend the following laser engraving&cutting machines according to different materials and requirements.
Engraving bamboo, wood and small crafts
If you want to engrave bamboo, wood and small crafts, then EMIT4060 is your best choice, it is a small laser engraving machine with cheap price and high precision. The working area of 400*600mm can meet the needs of most customers.
Engraving wooden box, wine box
For the engraving of square materials such as wooden boxes or wine boxes, we recommend EMIT4060 or 9060, and you need to configure the lifting platform, otherwise the long wooden box can not be engraved.
Engraving bamboo tube, tea box
For engraving of round materials, 4060 or 9060 laser machine both arr good. At the time of buying, you should ask the seller to configure the lifting platform and have a rotary engraving device.
Cutting paper materials such as greeting cards
If you want to make a greeting card or a Christmas card, a small laser engraving machine such as EMIT4060 or 9060 is the best option. It has a fast cutting speed and high precision, which can avoid the yellowing of the edge of the paper. And it is more appropriate to choose a smaller power machine.
Engraving large woodblock prints
For large wood paintings or other large materials, you should choose a large laser engraving machine or laser cutting machine. I suggest you buy 1390 with a lifting platform and you can put materials on the front and back of the laser engraver, so it is easy to engrave large wooden boards.
Cutting cloth and leather
For the cutting of materials such as leather fabrics, we have a professional laser cutter- EMIT1610. The laser cutter has a fast cutting speed, high power and a honeycomb cutting platform.
Acrylic materials are very hard. You should choose a laser machine with a large power and long life. It is best to choose a blade platform for the working platform, so that the bottom of the material will not be reflected. In addition, cutting for acrylic is the most high requirement for CO2 laser cutter, so this is a good standard for testing the laser technology capabilities of suppliers.
4, The material of a machine’s configuration and accessories
Generally speaking, except for the damage caused by human factors, the better the material of each part and accessories of the machine, the longer the service life, especially the consumables, such as laser tubes. Therefore, it is better to investigate the materials used in each configuration of the machine before purchasing the machine.
Price is a factor that many people focus on when buying goods. The more expensive the machine, it does not necessarily mean the better this machine. The high price may be due to low production efficiency, or it may be due to the participation of a third party, so you need to comprehensively consider various factors.
Having answered the above questions, let’s make a summary.
1, Laser engraving machine is a piece of advanced equipment that utilizes the thermal energy of the laser to engrave materials that need to be engraved, mainly on the surface of the object. Laser engraving is a trace engraved by the chemical or physical change of the surface material caused by the light energy of the laser beam, or burns off part of the material by light energy, showing the desired etching pattern, text.
2, The most common laser engraving machine is the CO2 laser engraving machine, which can perform laser processing on non-metallic materials such as quartz, marble, plexiglass, cloth, leather, rubber, plastic, cardboard, etc.
3, The application range of laser engraving machines is wide, and it is widely used in the advertising industry, gift industry, garment processing industry, printing industry, and other industries.
4, Laser engraving machine can improve the engraving efficiency, high engraving precision, fast speed, wide application range, save time and materials, and the width of the slit is small, the engraving effect is delicate, and even fine and precise processing can be performed.
5, Before choosing to buy an engraving machine, you need to comprehensively consider various factors, the thickness, and size of the engraved item, the material and quality of the machine, whether the price is appropriate.
If you have other questions, please leave us a message.
Bonus: Safety Guidelines when using a laser engraver
1. Get good ventilation
Since the laser engraving machine performs engraving with heat, the engraved surface is scorched or melted. Naturally, smoke, gas and smell are generated. When processing paper, the smell of baked sweet potatoes can make you appetite, but wood smells quite strong. When processing acrylics, in addition to the smell, there is also the emission of gas from the burning of plastic products, which can be harmful to the body. Work in a well-ventilated area, such as near a ventilation fan.
2. Prepare fire extinguisher
During engraving, smoke (flammable gas) is generated depending on the material. The higher the power, the more the laser ignites the gas and a small flame may be emitted. Most of them disappear instantaneously, but they can cause a fire, so prepare a fire extinguisher.
3. Do not look directly at the laser beam
Laser engraving machines may generate intense light during processing. This can cause eye damage. It is fun to watch the material being carved, but it is dangerous, so wear laser protection goggles or do not look at the light generated during processing.
4. Absolutely no PVC resin material!
When heat is applied to PVC-based materials, toxic gases are generated, which is extremely harmful. In addition, gas attacks machine parts and shortens machine life. Never process PVC-based materials.
5. Do not engrave the mirror surface material!
Mirrors reflect the irradiated laser and damage the laser tube. Do not process mirror-finished materials or materials that are likely to reflect laser, as it may cause damage to the machine.
6. After a break in continuous processing
When laser engraving is performed for a long time, the laser transmitter becomes hot and the laser output drops extremely. If engraving machines are equipped with a water-cooled unit or other cooling, so you dont worry. The continuous processing time varies depending on the machine, but read the manual carefully, grasp the continuous engraving time, and do not process for a long time.
With a laser engraving machine, your idea becomes a shape, it is very interesting, and if you master it, the range of expression can be expanded at a stretch with DIY. Why do not you buy a laser engraving machine at this opportunity? You will enjoy it!